Grant laid siege to nearby Petersburg , whose evacuation by Lee caused the government to flee the capital, which the retreating Confederates left in flames. In the United States Census , Richmond was the 25th largest urban area in the United States, with a population of 37, The Confederate States of America was formed in early from the first states to secede from the Union.
Montgomery, Alabama , was selected as the Confederate capital. Virginia voted to secede from the Union on April 17, , and existed briefly thereafter as an independent republic before joining the Confederacy on June 19, Shortly thereafter, in recognition of Virginia's strategic importance, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond.
Richmond remained the capital of the Confederacy until April 2, , at which point the government evacuated and was re-established, albeit briefly, in Danville, Virginia. Positioned on the Fall Line along the James River , the city had ready access to an ample supply of hydropower to run mills and factories. The Tredegar Iron Works , sprawling along the James River , supplied high-quality munitions to Confederacy during the war. The company also manufactured railroad steam locomotives in the same period. Tredegar is also credited with the production of approximately 10, artillery pieces during the war which was about half of the South's total domestic production of artillery between the war years of — The foundry made the tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia the former USS Merrimack , which fought the first battle between ironclad warships in March The Tredegar works were adjacent to the Richmond Arsenal , which was recommissioned in the lead-up to the war.
On Brown's Island , the Confederate States Laboratory was established to consolidate explosives production to an isolated setting in the eventuality of an accidental explosion. Numerous smaller factories in Richmond produced tents, uniforms, harnesses and leather goods, swords and bayonets, and other war material. As the war progressed, the city's warehouses became the supply and logistical center for much of the Confederate forces within the Eastern Theater. Richmond was also a transportation hub. At the fall of Richmond in April , all but the Richmond and Danville Railroad and the canal had effectively been cut off by Union forces.
McClellan landed on the Virginia Peninsula. McClellan, who had enjoyed early publicity from a series of successes in western Virginia , was assigned the task of seizing and occupying Richmond. His military maneuvers and the resulting battles and engagements became collectively known as the Peninsula Campaign , culminating in the Seven Days Battles.
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Efforts to take Richmond by the James River were successfully blocked by Confederate defenses at the Battle of Drewry's Bluff on May 15, about eight miles downstream from Richmond. Over a period of seven days from June 25 to July 1, , Richmond's defensive line of batteries and fortifications set up under General Robert E. Stuart , and an unexpected appearance of General Stonewall Jackson 's famous " foot cavalry " combined to unnerve the ever-cautious McClellan, and he initiated a Union retreat before Richmond.
Even as other portions of the South were already falling, the failure of the Peninsula Campaign to take Richmond led to almost three more years of warfare between the states.
Grant Attacked Petersburg, Virginia
As a result of its proximity to the battlefields of the Eastern Theater and its high level of defense, the city processed many casualties of both sides: as home to numerous hospitals the largest such being Chimborazo Hospital , prisons notably Libby Prison , Castle Thunder , and Belle Isle , and various cemeteries. On March 13, , the Confederate Laboratory on Brown's Island was rocked by an explosion that killed dozens of workers.
On April 2, , the city was beset by a large bread riot as housewives could no longer afford very high food prices and broke into stores. The riot was organized by Mary Jackson , a huckster and the mother of a soldier. The Confederacy hit its high-water mark at the Battle of Gettysburg in July Subsequent campaigning in the balance of the year failed to bring about a decisive battle, and Richmond residents settled down to the winter of —64 mostly still optimistic about the Confederacy's fortunes.
One of the Civil War's most daring prison breaks , the Libby Prison Escape , took place in February when more than Federal captives escaped and fled into the night.
Fewer than half were recaptured, with the majority reaching Union lines and safety. The city was shaken shortly thereafter by the March 2, Dahlgren Affair , a failed Union raid on the city. Ulysses S. Grant 's Overland Campaign resulted in Robert E.
Lee 's Confederate army retiring to the vicinity of Richmond and Petersburg , where they checked Grant's progress. After a long siege , Grant captured Petersburg and Richmond in early April As the fall of Petersburg became imminent, on Evacuation Sunday April 2 , President Davis , his Cabinet, and the Confederate defenders abandoned Richmond and fled south on the last open railroad line, the Richmond and Danville.
The retreating soldiers were under orders to set fire to bridges, the armory , and supply warehouses as they left. The fire in the largely abandoned city spread out of control, and large parts of Richmond were destroyed, reaching to the very edge of Capitol Square mostly unchecked. The conflagration was not completely extinguished until the mayor and other civilians went to the Union lines east of Richmond on New Market Road now State Route 5 and surrendered the city the next day.
The Civil War
It was the spring of and General Grant had Lee and his army backing up toward what finally became the siege of Petersburg, Virginia. Virginia Civil War Map of Battles It all happened so quickly, in what was the most moving and decisive month not simply of the Civil War, but indeed, quite likely, in the life of the United States.
The work is thoroughly researched with a plethora of primary sources incorporated right into the text. Kindle Available Personal Memoirs of P. Sheridan earned the enmity of many Virginians for laying waste to the Shenandoah Valley. His date and place of birth is uncertain, but he himself claimed to have been born in New York in This guide covers them all like a mini-history of the war. This guide organizes battles chronologically.
Each campaign has a detailed overview, followed by concise descriptions of the individual engagements. Approaching these epic events from a unique and well-rounded perspective, and based on careful research. Ulysses S. In doing so, the Civil War's greatest general won himself a unique place in American letters.
His character, sense of purpose, and simple compassion are evident throughout this deeply moving account, as well as in the letters to his wife, Julia. Lee's Last Retreat The Flight to Appomattox Lee's troops were more numerous and far less faithful to their cause than has been suggested. Lee himself made mistakes in this campaign, and defeat wrung from him an unusual display of faultfinding. Told through the actual words of slave owners, free-staters, border ruffians, and politicians, Bad Blood presents the complex morality, differing values, and life-and-death decisions faced by those who lived on the Missouri-Kansas border.
Grant forcibly reversed the tide of the conflict by paying with the blood of thousands. It was a desperate time for the Union. Civil War Combat: America's Bloodiest Battles The violent mayhem of the hornet's nest at Shiloh, the valiant charge on the sunken road at Antietam, the carnage in the wheat field at Gettysburg, and the brutal fighting at Cold Harbor.
Jefferson Davis An American President One of the most outstanding statesmen of the United States during the first 60 years of the 19th century, he sacrificed everything to defend the South's position regarding the rights of the states and conservative constitutional interpretation. Civil War Terror Tales of hidden conspiracies of terror that specifically targeted the civilian populations.