Mirroring data can be done using various backup software programs or may be enabled within operating systems that support disk mirroring. While using a mirrored volume helps keep data safe, it also slows down data transfers because the data must always be written twice. It also costs more, since mirroring data requires twice as much disk storage than what would otherwise be required. However, the cost of an extra hard drive is usually well worth the security of having important data backed up.
This page contains a technical definition of Mirrored Volume. It explains in computing terminology what Mirrored Volume means and is one of many hardware terms in the TechTerms dictionary. All definitions on the TechTerms website are written to be technically accurate but also easy to understand. In the passive viewing condition, participants viewed the video clips of communicative hand gestures or object-directed hand movements.
During the imitation condition, participants imitated the communicative hand gesture or object-directed hand movement that they saw in the observed video clip. Finally, during the production condition, participants saw a word or phrase describing the communicative hand gestures or object-directed hand movements and produced the action described. These three conditions made it possible to distinguish perception alone, perception and action and action without perception. Every time series had three blocks with one block for each condition.
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Both the order of blocks and of the time series were counterbalanced and pseudo-randomized across participants. Due to a technical problem, only 12 time series were analyzed for one of the participants. During two of the three conditions, the participants made hand movements during fMRI scanning, which can introduce movement-related artifacts in the images. Consequently, the fast signal changes linked with brief movements could be distinguished from the slow hemodynamic responses related to brain activity. Participants were trained before the scanning session to familiarize them with the conditions and stimuli.
During the scanning session, the hands of the participants were videotaped to monitor performance accuracy. For each time series, a total of EPI volume images were acquired. The first four images of each time series were excluded from analysis. Images were analyzed using voxelwise multiple regression with square wave functions reflecting each condition communicative hand gestures: view, imitate, do; object-directed hand movements: view, imitate, do that were convolved with a Gamma function model of the hemodynamic response to reflect the time course of the BOLD signal.
In addition, unconvolved square wave functions for each condition were included as regressors of non-interest to account for brief movement-artifacts associated with hand movements. See supplementary Figure 1 for an illustration of the predicted non-overlapping signal changes that were modeled by these condition and movement regressors.
Additional regressors of non-interest were used to factor out variance due to overall motion of the participant between time series, as well as regressors accounting for mean, linear and quadratic trends within time series. Thus, the multiple regression analysis models included six regressors of interest, six regressors to account for signal changes due to the execution of hand movements, a regressor for the condition cue, six regressors for head movement roll, pitch, yaw, x , y and z and 48 regressors that accounted for mean, linear and quadratic trends.
The multiple regression model results identified the areas that were activated for each condition compared to baseline, which was defined as the rest periods when the participants were viewing a blank screen. The beta coefficients for each regressor of interest were normalized to the mean baseline response, which was found by calculating the mean activity for the baseline periods between each condition, and converted to percent signal change maps. The percent signal change maps for each individual participant were converted into Talairach space for group analysis Talairach and Tournoux, To examine activity during observation or execution alone, we tested the significance of the response during the view and do conditions in the peak voxel for the imitate condition.
Coordinates and statistics for activation evoked during viewing, imitating and producing communicative hand gestures as compared to rest. Coordinates and statistics for activation evoked during viewing, imitating and producing object-directed hand gestures as compared to rest. For the analyses of time series data, anatomically defined volumes of interest VOI were drawn on high-resolution structural images to identify the three areas for which we had specific hypotheses: the STS, IPL and frontal operculum.
Mean signals for all activated voxels within a given VOI were computed by averaging across the condition blocks of detrended, raw time signals. Selected contrasts were evaluated with matched paired t -tests. There was no significant difference between viewing and producing.source url
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The volumes of activated voxels in the right and left STS were not significantly different. Time course analyses from the STS and mirror neuron system. A Time course results for the STS. The volumes of activated voxels in the right and left frontal operculum were not significantly different. We found significant activation in the STS and MNS for the observation, imitation and production of both object-directed hand movements and communicative hand gestures.
Interestingly, we found the same level of activation in the MNS for both communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements suggesting that communicative hand gestures activate the MNS in a similar manner as the object-directed hand movements. There was a significant response in the STS during observation, imitation and production of communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements. This finding is consistent with previous neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies that have found the STS to be involved with the perception of biological movements Perrett et al.
We found significant activation in the STS during production of hand gestures without perception. This finding raises the question of whether the STS is involved only in the visual perception of action or in both the perception and execution of action. To our knowledge, there are no reports from single unit recordings in monkey cortex of STS neurons that respond to an action when the monkey cannot see the action that is being produced.
Previous neuroimaging studies have found that the STS responds to the imagery of biological motion Grossman and Blake, , but the activation to imagery is weaker than the response to observation Ishai et al. In our experiment, however, the response during production was stronger than the response during observation, which suggests that imagery by itself is an unlikely explanation for this activity. We found greater activation in the STS while imitating actions as compared to viewing actions, suggesting augmentation by feedback derived from motor-related activity. Previous findings Iacoboni et al.
We found a significant difference in the STS between communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements. This significant difference only existed during the production condition. In our previous study Montgomery, et al, , that investigated activity in the STS and MNS for facial expressions and communicative hand gestures, we found that the activation during action production was equal to the activation during imitation in the STS.
In the current study, we found equal activation during the production and imitation conditions for communicative hand gestures, consistent with our previous finding Montgomery, et al, In contrast, activation in the production condition for object-directed hand movements was less than the activation during the imitation condition in the STS.
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The finding of increased activation in the STS for the production of communicative hand gestures compared to object-directed hand movements might reflect the role of the STS in social communication Allison et al. There was significant bilateral IPL activity during the observation, imitation and production of communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements. The significant bilateral IPL response during observation and execution is consistent with previous imitation neuroimaging studies Iacoboni et al.
We found greater activation in the left IPL than in the right IPL, which is consistent with the patient literature that suggests left hemisphere damage is linked to hand and finger imitation deficits Goldenberg, ; Goldenberg and Hermsdorfer, along with neuroimaging studies suggesting that gesture imitation is left-lateralized Muhlua et al.
Furthermore, a recent neuroimaging study investigating imitation found that IPL activity was bilateral, but was stronger on the side contralateral to the response hand Aziz-Zadeh et al. Since in our experiment participants made gestures with their right hand, stronger activation in the left IPL is consistent with these previous findings. We did not find a significant difference in activation in bilateral IPL for communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements suggesting that the IPL is involved with the observation and execution of both object-directed and communicative hand movements.
Previous single-cell findings have found mirror neurons in inferior parietal lobe of the monkey that respond to object-directed actions such as grasping a piece of food to eat Fogassi et al. To date, there are no reports of communicative mirror neurons in the IPL that fire during the observation and execution of actions that are not object-directed. Our results suggest that the IPL is involved with hand gestures that are used in nonverbal communication that do not include an object. We found significant responses in bilateral frontal operculum, including pars opercularis, during the viewing, imitation and production of communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements, in agreement with previous findings Gallese et al.
We did not find that activity in the frontal operculum was lateralized, as it was in the IPL.
The lack of laterality in the frontal operculum may be due to the perspective of the stimulus. Our study used stimuli that were from the third person perspective, not the first person perspective. Previous neuroimaging studies have found that the observation and imitation of first person perspective stimuli resulted in significantly more activation in the inferior frontal gyrus as compared to third person perspective stimuli Jackson et al. As suggested by Aziz-Zadeh and colleagues , the question of whether the perspective of the stimulus results in laterality differences in activation of the MNS should be explored in future studies.
We did not find a significant difference in activation in the frontal operculum for communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements, suggesting that the frontal operculum responds to the observation and execution of both communicative and object-directed hand movements. Overall, I am proposing an integrative model in which the cognitive constructs of perception and action are operationalized neurologically in sensory and motor processing, respectively.
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Sensory and motor processing then converge in the brain, a process that involves networks of association areas referred to by Damasio as convergence zones. This process leads to the development of skills, in essence flexible repertoires of goal directed, contextually relevant representations built from the convergence of actions and perceptions.