Chaudhary, R. Shrivastav, V. Satsangi and S. Hydrogen Energy, 29,, Satsangi, Satya Prakash, D. Khan, Rohit Shrivastav, Vibha. Shrivastav, K. Agarwal, R. Agarwal, K. Rai, R. Agrawal, K. Satsangi and R. Agrawal, S. Shrivastav, Fluoride: Diffusive mobility in soil and some remedial measures to control its plant uptake. Current Science 79,, Gupta, V. Rajwanshi, M. Rai, S. Srivastava, R. Ground water quality assessment of Tehsil Kheragarh Agra India with special reference to fluoride.
Monitoring and Assessment. Rajwanshi, V.
Singh, M. Gupta, R. Aluminium leaching from surrogate Aluminium food containers under different pH and fluoride concentration. Mathur, S. Srivastava, M. Srivastava, S. Brick reveal recent history of heavy metal pollution in soil around a north Indian city.
IRCRE Scientific Output
Mishra, K. Shankar, M. Dass and S. A study on the uptake of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by Paddy Oryza sativa. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. Shrivastav, M. The Sci. Ramanamurthy, R. Shanker, S.
Mishra, S. Dass, S. Mathur and S. Prakash Bricks as historical record of heavy metal fallout: Study on copper accumulation in Agra soils since Gupta, S. Prakash, S. A sudy on plant uptake of fluoride through irrigation water on Maize Zea mays. Srivastav, R. Studies on Cd-Se interactions with reference to the uptake and transcolation of cadmium in kidney bean. Mishra, V. Dass, G. Gupta, P.
Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production
Rajwanshi, S. Published by Soc. Delhi, , Dass Fluoride in gruond water at Agra. Srivastava, A. Juneja, S. Srivastav, V. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability. Ground water fluoride levels in a Rural area of District Agra. Hazra An evaluation of certain Bifunctional chelates for linking radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies in tumour targetting.
Scope of Monoclonal Antibody Technology in Oncology. Current Science. Current Science, 19, - , Journal of Science and Engineering Research. Choice of Radionuclide for labelling Antibodies, Newer Prespectives. Nuclear Medicine Communications London. Finland held from August 9 , Newer Bifunctional Chelates for Radioimmunotherapy RIT , paper accepted for presentation at the symposium 'Advances in the applications of monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology' held at Royal Post Graduate School, University of London from May 28 , Assessment of water quality of certain parts of District Agra with special reference to fluoride and its impact on health, Paper accepted for presentation at the XIXth Conference of International Society for Fluoride Research, Kyoto Japan.
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Fossil fuels come from finite resources which will eventually become scarce and difficult to explore. Thus, fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable energy sources [ 2 ]. Furthermore, consuming fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases and other byproducts, causing climate change and air pollution.
The growing demand for energy requires a rapid shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal energy [ 3 ]. In this context, hydrogen was proposed as a promising candidate for a secondary source of energy as early as [ 4 ].
Being a potential energy carrier in the future, hydrogen plays an important role in the path toward a low-carbon energy structure that is environmentally friendly [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. Currently, the steam reforming process is the most economical way of producing hydrogen. An alternative way of producing hydrogen is the power-to-gas strategy where intermittent energy resources are transferred and stored as hydrogen Figure 1. Here, hydrogen is mainly produced from water electrolysis where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen by supplying electrical energy:. In an electrolyzer, the above reaction is separated by an electrolyte either in liquid or solid form into two half reactions.
The hydrogen evolution reaction HER occurs at the cathode:. Water electrolysis technologies are classified into three categories based on the applied electrolyte: alkaline water electrolysis, proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolysis, and solid oxide water electrolysis [ 11 ]. PEM water electrolysis systems provide several advantages over the other two electrolysis technologies, such as higher rate of hydrogen production, more compact design, and greater energy efficiency [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ].
Compared to alkaline electrolysis, the solid electrolyte membrane in PEM electrolysis reduces the hydrogen crossover significantly and thus allows for high-pressure operation. In addition, as required by the role of electrolytic hydrogen production in renewable energy storage, dynamic response of PEM water electrolysis is superior to alkaline electrolysis or solid oxide electrolysis. The large quantity of liquid electrolyte in alkaline electrolysis requires the proper temperature to be maintained and could raise issues for a cold start. The produced hydrogen can have several pathways to different applications Figure 1.
On the efficiency and stability of photoelectrochemical devices | Accounts of Chemical Research
It can be utilized for hydrogen fueling stations to power fuel cell vehicles or feed the combined heat and power CHP units for household uses. Moreover, the electrolytic hydrogen can be used as chemical feedstock in methanation after combining with CO 2 stream from biogas or flue gas to produce renewable natural gas. Further, the generated hydrogen can also be consumed as a raw material by hydrogen users such as oil refining and semiconductor industry.
Finally, the hydrogen can be transferred to electricity when the grid demand is high. Hydrogen can also be produced from biomass via pyrolysis or gasification. Wood, agricultural crops and its byproducts, organic waste, animal waste, waste from food processing, and so on are all sources of biomass. Biomass pyrolysis is basically [ 9 ]:.
Employing catalysts, such as Ni-based catalysts, can enhance the yield of hydrogen from biomass pyrolysis. Moreover, hydrogen production can be improved by introducing steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction to the pyrolysis [ 9 ]. For the gasification process, biomass is pyrolyzed at higher temperatures producing mostly gaseous products [ 9 ]:. It is beneficial that biomass pyrolysis and gasification can be operated in small scale and at remote locations, which reduces the cost of hydrogen transportation and storage and improves the availability of hydrogen to end consumers [ 16 ].